Election 2017: Corbyn urges Scottish voters to reject 'vicious' Tories
In her own address to the STUC congress, Ms Sturgeon said the Conservatives' vision for the UK should be "ringing alarm bells" across Scotland.
She said that Tory "hardliners" had taken over the party and now wanted to take the country in a direction that "UKIP could only have dreamed of" a few years ago.
Ms Sturgeon said: "The Tories have taken an extreme position - demanding an end to any opposition at Westminster if they win the election.
"The bigger the Tory majority the more they will think they can do anything to Scotland and get away with it.
"That will mean more cuts, more attacks on low-income families and a hard Brexit. Only the SNP has the strength to stand up to the Tories and make Scotland's voice heard."
Ms Sturgeon also suggested Theresa May had chosen to call a snap general election before alleged Tory expenses fraud in 2015 "catches up with her".
She added: "Whatever our politics, we should all stand up against that rightward drift of the country that the Tories are determined to effect."
And the first minister stressed that the Scottish government wanted to work with trade unionists to "build a fairer country".
Elsewhere, the Tories turned their fire on Mr Corbyn, who they claimed would "roll over" and allow Ms Sturgeon a second independence referendum.
Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson said: "The choice for Scottish voters at this election is between the Conservatives standing up for the Union and focusing on getting the best deal in the Brexit negotiations, or Jeremy Corbyn and the SNP putting our nation's future at risk.
"Corbyn couldn't be bothered to campaign in the independence referendum and he has already said he would do a deal with the SNP. And the last time he was in Scotland he said he was 'absolutely fine' with a second referendum.
"On top of that, there's no way he could get a good deal from the other European leaders.
"Only the Conservatives can bring the SNP's nationalist caravan to a halt and provide the leadership we need to get the best possible deal out of Europe."
Scottish Democrat leader Willie Rennie said: "We stand to keep Scotland at the heart of the UK and the UK at the heart of Europe.
"Every vote that goes to the Liberal Democrats is a vote against a Tory hard Brexit, it's a vote against the division of another independence referendum and it is a vote for an open, tolerant and united Britain."
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